Nearly all kratom alkaloids resemble yohimbe oxindoles and indoles in the way they affect the central nervous system. However, kratom alkaloids do not present the addictive properties exerted by yohime alkaloids because they do not target opioid receptors in the brain. Instead, kratom and its naturally produced alkaloids offer a healthy alternative prescription medications that are addictive or cause unpleasant, sometimes harmful side effects.
Comprehensive List of Kratom Alkaloids
Also known a Raubasine, ajmalicine is an anti-hypertensive, smooth muscle relaxant and sedative incorporated in brand name drugs prescribed to treat high blood pressure. Similar to corynanthine, ajmalicine is an adrenergic receptor agonist that works to reduce blood pressure by dilating constricted blood vessels and inhibiting blood clot formation.Corynantheidine: μ -opioid antagonist, also found in Yohimbe. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.
One percent of the alkaloid content found in kratom is corynoxeine, a calcium channel blocker that may help with treating vascular diseases or preventing narrowing of arteries following angioplasty.
A powerful antioxidant (anti-inflammatory and antiviral) that may improve heart health and attenuate diabetic symptoms, epicatechin seems to inhibit platelet aggregation responsible for blood clots. Additionally, epicatechnin regulates nitric oxide levels in the blood to promote dilation of blood vessels.
Exhibiting partial opioid agonist properties in the brain, 9-hydroxycorynantheidine mimics the effects of endorphins to produce opiate-like sensations. Methadone is an example of a partial opioid agonist that helps heroin addicts overcome their addiction. In fact, kratom is currently being researched as a possible alternative medication for reducing cravings and preventing relapse.
Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine
These two alkaloids are primarily responsible for kratom’s numerous health benefits. In animal and human research studies, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine have been found to have potent antitussive, analgesic, adrenergic and anti-diarrheal properties comparable to the efficacy of codeine, morphine and prescription anti-diarrheal medications. Two percent of kratom’s alkaloid content is comprised of 7-hydroxymitragynine and over 60 percent is contain mitragynine.
Isomitraphylline and Isopteropodine
Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids such isomitraphylline and isopteropodine appear to exhibit anticarcinogenic and immunostimulant properties in laboratory studies. Maintaining optimal immune system functioning is critical to fighting infections and preventing recurring illnesses.
Isospeciofoline and Mitraciliatine
As kratom oxindole alkaloids, isospeciofoline and mitraciliatine are immune-boosting alkaloids enhancing the ability of white blood cells to attack and eliminate a variety of infectious pathogens invading the body.
Mitragynine Oxindole B
Derived from mitragynine, mitragynine oxindole B is a semi-synthetic opioid acting on delta and mu opioid receptors in the brain. Just as potent, if not more effective than morphine for relieving pain, mitragynine oxindole B exerts antihypertensive, diuretic, immunostimulating and vasodilating effects. This kratom alkaloid may also offer anti-leukemic and memory-enhancing properties.
An indole alkaloid representing about nine percent of kratom’s alkaloid content, mitraversine paynantheine is a smooth muscle relaxer. Since smooth muscles are found in blood vessels, the GI tract, the bladder, lymphatic vessels and respiratory tract, mitraversine paynantheine may help treat hypertension, cramps, coughing and general unwellness.
A versatile kratom alkaloid, rhynchophylline is not only a calcium channel blocker and vasodilator but has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitical and anti-pyretic properties.
A lesser opioid agonist alkaloid found only in kratom, speciociliatine comprises about one percent of kratom’s alkaloid content.
Another alkaloid exhibiting smooth muscle relaxing qualities, Speciofoline speciogynine may help reduce symptoms of allergies, colds and respiratory illnesses. Prescription medications called smooth muscle relaxers include bronchodilators, antihistamines and decongestants.
An alkaloid with anti-adrenergic and hypoglycemic properties, stipulatine tetrahydroalstonine may help treat circulatory disorders by providing vasodilating effects and improving peripheral blood flow throughout veins and capillaries.
Also referred to as uncarine C, D, a type of oxindole alkaloid, speciophylline may improve memory impairment by reducing the level of dysfunction in the brain’s cholinergic systems.
Providing nearly eight percent of kratom’s smooth muscle relaxing properties, speciogynine is the main reason by kratom makes users feel relaxed and calm yet motivated and focused. In addition, speciogynine contributes to kratom’s ability to relieve chronic pain pain, enhance mood and reinforce immune system functioning.
Although the mitraphylline concentration found in kratom is just under one percent, this alkaloid still exerts effective vasodilating, anti-hypertensive and muscle relaxing properties. Mitraphylline may also improve memory and cognition. Since mitraphylline is structurally similar to 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitragynine, it also has effects on delta and mu opiate receptors in the brain and may also exhibit NMDA antagonistic activity. Consequently, mitraphylline could help opioid addicts avoid relapse and remain sober by offering an alternative to methadone, which does present a risk of addiction. Additionally, researchers are currently investigating mitraphylline’s potential anticarcinogenic properties by experimenting with in vivo sarcoma and breast cancer cells.
More Information about Kratom Alkaloids
Concentration of kratom alkaloids depends heavily on several factors, including the age at which the plant was harvested, type of kratom it is (Bali, Green Vein, Red Vein, White Vein, etc) and environmental conditions affecting the plant’s growth and nourishment. Mitragynine appears to be most abundant in Thai kratom varieties while Malaysian kratom has lower concentrations of mitragynine. Kratom resins may contain relatively large amounts of mitragynine and minimal amounts of 7-hydroxymitragynine. Because the quality of kratom differs so greatly, always purchase kratom from a reputable online kratom dealer who works directly with professional kratom farmers Asia.